Now we are going to discuss about FOCUS AREA BASED SSLC TOPICS;Chemistry-chapter4-Reactivity series

✔️The series obtained by arranging some of the metals in the decreasing order of their reactivity, this is known as Reactivity series.
✔️The hydrogen is also included in the series for the comparison of chemical reactivity.

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• Displacement Reaction

Highly reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their salt solutions . Such reactions are called displacement reactions. Displacement reactions are redox reactions.

✔️ Oxidation
The reduction process of losing electron is known as Oxidation
✔️ Reduction
The process of gaining electrons is known as reduction.
✔️Oxidation and reduction takes place simultaneously, this is known as Redox reaction.

✔️ Galvanic cell

The device used for the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy through redox reaction is called Galvanic cell or Voltaic cell.

Galvanic cell or voltaic cell is an arrangement in which chemical energy is converted into electrical energy by means of a redox reaction.

✔️The electrode at which oxidation occurs is the Anode.
✔️The electrode at which reduction occurs is Cathode.
✔️ In a galvanic cell, electrons flow from the negative electrode (anode) to the positive electrode (cathode).

✔️Electrolytic Cells

The process of chemical change taking place in an electrolyte by passing electricity is known as Electrolysis.

✔️Electrolytes are substances which conduct electricity in molten states or in aqueous solutions and undergo a chemical change. Acids, alkalis and salts are electrolytes in their molten state or in aqueous solution.

Electrolytes are substances which conduct electricity in molten states or in aqueoussolutions and undergo chemical change.
Acids, alkalis and salts are electrolytes in their molten state or in aqueous solution.
In molten state or in aqueous solution, ions of the electrolytes can move freely. These ions are responsible for the conduction of electricity by the electrolytes.
It was Michael Faraday who gave a scientific explanation for electrolysis for the first time.Electrodes are substances which pass electricity to the electrolytes. During electrolysis one electrode is connected to positive terminal of a battery and the other to the negative terminal. The electrode which is connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the
anode. The electrode which is connected to the negative terminal is the cathode.

✔️During electrolysis the anions (negatively charged ions) move towards the anode and cations (positively charged ions) move towards the cathode.
✔️In galvanic cell, the anode is negative and cathode is positive, at the same time in electrolytic cells, the anode is positive and cathode is negative.
✔️ In both cases oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction occurs at the cathode.

Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride
Sodium chloride in solid state is not an electrical conductor because its ions have no freedom of movement. But electricity flows through molten sodium chloride. When sodium chloride melts, the positively charged sodium ions (Na+) and the negatively charged chloride ions (Cl−) are free to move.

Uses of Electrolysis
🔅 Production of metals and non metals
🔅 Production of chemicals
🔅Purification of metals


The coating of metallic object with other metals by the using electrolysis is known as electro plating.
Uses of Electroplating
🔅 Gold plated ornaments
🔅 Silver plated vessels
🔅 Chromium plated iron handles


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