Focus area topics

Download:Kerala SSLC 2022 Biology Focus area based notes (Mal & Eng Med)- All Chapters.pdf

Top focus area points to remember in SSLC KERALA BIOLOGY-chapter “keeping disease away”.given below

Tuberculosis, AIDS, Malaria-causative organisms,
symptoms, mode of transmission.
Genetic diseases-Hemophilia
Cancer-causes and treatment


  • Tuberculosis is a disease caused by a bacteria -Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs. But kidneys, bones, joints, brain etc. are also affected by this disease.
  • Symptoms-Loss of body weight, fatigue, persistent dry cough
  • Mode of transmission-When the patient speaks, coughs or sneezes, the pathogens spread into the air and thereby to others.
  • Treated by antibiotics.
  • BCG is the vaccine against the disease


  • Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by a virus called the Human Immuno deficiency Virus(HIV).
  • This virus attacks Lymphocyte, a type of white blood cell. The virus enters the Lymphocytes and multiplies there using the genetic mechanism of the host. This gradually destroys Lymphocytes. Since Lymphocytes are providing immunity to our body the reduction in their number reduces the immunity of the body. In such a situation various other pathogens enter in our body and cause diseases. This make the condition of AIDS more fatal.
  • Mode of transmission- AIDS spreads through the following ways
    -Through sexual contact with HIV infected person. -From HIV infected mother to foetus. -By sharing needle and syringe -Through the receiving of blood and organs contaminated with HIV
  • AIDS does not spread by……
    -Touch, shaking hands, coughing, sneezing etc.
    -Through insects like mosquitoes, houseflies etc.
    -Staying together and sharing food
    -Using the same toilet -Taking bath in the same pond


  • Malaria is caused by a protozoa the Plasmodium.
  • Pathogen-Plasmodium
  • Mode of transmission-Through the female Anopheles mosquito
  • Symptoms-High fever with shivering and profuse sweating,Headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, anaemia etc.
  • Precaution-Since the disease is spreading through mosquitoes avoid mosquito bite. Use mosquito nets. Prevent the breeding of mosquitoes. Observe dry day once in a week.


  • Cause- The defect of a gene that controls the production of a protein which is needed for blood clotting.
  • Symptoms- Blood do not clots in wounds. This leads to excess blood loss even from minor wounds.
  • Treatment- No complete cure is possible since it is a genetic disease. Temporary relief by identifying and injecting the deficient protein.


  • Cause-Uncontrolled division of cells and their spread to other tissues. When the normal cells loss the control system of cell division, they get transformed into cancer cells.
  • cause
    -Environmental factors
    -Some virus
    -Hereditary factors
  • The disease may become complicated when the cancer cells spread to various parts of the body through blood and lymph.
  • Treatment-Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy etc. Early diagnosis of the disease is crucial in the treatment since as the disease advances, it spread to more parts.

TOP 15 – Most probable picture based topics asked in SSLC BIOLOGY Examination


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