Important focus area points of sslc social science,chapter “India after independence” is given below

Integration of Princely States

馃攨There were around six hundred princely states in pre-independent India, in addition to the territories directly ruled by the British.
馃攨Britain gave these princely states the options to join either India or Pakistan or to be independent.
馃攨Integration of these princely states into the Indian Union was challenge before the new nation.
馃攨The integration was really a herculean task and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the Union Minister entrusted with this mission. He appointed V.P Menon,a Keralite, as Secretary of the Department of States.

馃攨 Patel and V. P. Menon prepared an Instrument of Accesssion. which stipulated that the princely states had to transfer their control over defence, external affairs, and information and communication to the Government of India.
馃攨Following the diplomacy of the government and popular protests, majority of the princely states signed the Instrument of Accession and joined Indian Union.

馃攨 But some states such as Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagarh resented. Finally they were also integrated into the Indian Union through conciliation talks and military intervention
Following mass protest, France handed

Achievements in Science and Technology

馃攨Technology and technocrats have played a significant role in her development in agriculture and industry.
馃攨Under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru India made great achievements in science and technology and established several research institutions for the development of science and
鈼廋ouncil of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
鈼廔ndian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
鈼廔ndian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
H. J. Bhabha was the head of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Indian Atomic Energy Commission.
馃攨Five Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) were started between 1954 and 1964.
India made tremendous progress in medical science, biomedical engineering, genetics,
biotechnology, health science, marine technology, information technology, atomic energy and

Space Research in India

馃攨Vikram Sarabhai,
馃攨Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR)
馃攨Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) 1969
馃攨The first rocket-launching station in India was established in Thumba, near Thiruvananthapuram.
馃攨The first satellite Aryabhatta was successfully launched in 1975.

Focus area topic for SSLC: Public administration
馃攨There are several agencies that develop satellites in India now
鈥 National Remote Sensing
Agency (NRSA)
鈥 Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
Agni and Prithwi are the missiles
Chandrayan( Llunar Mission ) and Mangalyan (the space mission of India to Mars)

Foreign Policy

馃攨Free India adopted the foreign policy framed by the Indian National Congress during the struggle for independence.
Nehru is the chief architect of the foreign policy of India.
Main principles of India’s foreign policy are:
鈥 Resistance to colonialism and imperialism
鈥 Hostility to racism
鈥 Trust in the United Nations Organization
鈥 Peaceful co-existence
鈥 Panchsheel principles
鈥 Emphasis on the necessity of foreign assistance
鈥 Policy of Non – alignment

Panchsheel Principles

馃攨Signed by Jawaharlal Nehru and Chou En-lai the then Prime Minister of China in 1954.
鈥 Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
鈥 Mutual non-aggression
鈥 Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
鈥 Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit
鈥 Peaceful co-existence


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