Kerala towards modernity one of important topic of sslc 2022 examination,we provides notes,pdf,questions and important points of this chapter

Pazhassi Revolts, causes &results

Keralavarma Pazhassi Raja of Kottayam royal family led the resistance against the British in Malabar.

The British promised Pazhassi the right to collect tax from Kottayam region as a reward for helping them in the wars against Mysore.

The British refused to keep their promise after the triumph in the battle.Moreover, the British claimed their dominance over Wayanad.

Pazhassi Raja organised the people and fought against the British.

He unleashed guerilla war against the British with the help of Chempan Pokker, Kaitheri Ambu Nair, Edachena Kunkan Nair and Thalakkal Chandu, the leader of the Kurichias in-

In the fight against the British he was assulted his life on 30 November 1805.

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Kerala towards modernity sslc:Channar revolt

The Channar women of Southern Travancore fought for the right to cover their upper body.

As a result, Uthram Thirunal Maharaja was forced to permit the Channar women to wear jackets in 1859.

The consecration of the idol of lord Shiva at Aruvippuram by Sri Narayana Guru in 1888 caused the rise of new insights in the social sphere.

Consequently, the lower caste people gained right to perform the poojas and temple rituals.

In front of the Aruvippuram temple, Sri Narayana Guru inscribed : ” It is a model place where people live without caste disparity or religious aversion, but with fraternity”.

Guru gave importance to education and startedschools and libraries along with temples

He wished to “enlighten through education and strengthen by union”.-Calling for ‘not to argue and win but to know andinform’, he convened an all religion conference in Aluva.

Vaikom Satyagraha (1924);

Major struggles that took place in Kerala for claiming the right to travel.-Led by T. K. Madhavan.-Expressing solidarity with the Satyagraha, Mannath Padmanabhan organised the Savarna Jatha.

Following this struggle the lower castes secured permission to travel through the roads around the Vaikom Temple.

Guruvayur Satygraha(1931)

-Guruvayur agitation was launched demanding entry for all castes of Hindus into the Guruvayur temple (1931).

Led by K.Kelappan.-A.K.Gopalan was the volunteer captain of this struggle.

P.Krishna Pillai was callously attacked during this Satygraha.

Following these popular protests, the Temple Entry Proclamation was announced on 12 November 1936 in Travancore.

Following this, Temple Entry Proclamations were issued in Madras and Kochi and all sections of the society were offered the right to worship in temples.

National Movement and Women

List of National struggles leaded by women in Kerala

Boycotting foreign goods,

Picketing liquor shops,

Eradicating of untouchability, and-Popularising Khadi.

AV Kutimalu Amma led the national struggle in Malabar.

Ankamcheriyan and Animescreen led national struggles in Travancore.

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