Aims of government institutions?-Implementing laws and development programmes designed by the government.Public Administration – definition of N.Gladden -Public Administration is concerned with the administration of the government.What is public administration?-Public administration is the effective utilization of men and materials for the implementation of existing laws, governmental policies, programmes and developmental projects.-Governmental institutions are part of public administration -They functioned for the welfare of the people.-Public administration varies according to system of governance.Significance of public administration?-Formulate governmental policies.-Ensure welfare of the people.-Find out solutions to public issues.-Provide goods and Services.Bureaucracy-The employees who work under public administrative system and administer the country are together known as ‘bureaucracy’.Significance (aims) of bureaucracy-Functioning the day-to-day operations of public administration.-Make the public administration system dynamic.-Deliver all the services of government to the people.-Prepares plans for the scientific utilization of human and material resources and implements them effectively.Features of bureaucracy.-Hierarchical organisation.-Permanence.-Appointment on the basis of Qualification.-Political Neutrality.-Professionalism.Indian Civil Service-The Indian Civil Service is made up of all the officers of the Central Government and the State Government and various Public Sector Enterprises.-The Indian Civil Service can be divided into three1. All India Services-Recruits at national level-Appoints in central or state service Eg: Indian -Administrative Service, Indian Police Service2. Central Services-Recruits at national level-Appoints in central government departments only Eg: Indian Foreign Service, Indian Railway Service

State Services-Recruits at state level-Appoints in state government departments only Eg : Sales tax officer.Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).-Candidates to all India services and central services are recruited by the Union Public Service Commission.-The chairman and the members of this commission are appointed by the President of India.-The UPSC has elaborate mechanisms for the recruitment of candidates based on qualification.-UPSC is constituted on the basis of constitutional provisions. -So UPSC is called constitutional institutions.Public Service Commission (PSC) of the State. -At the state level, candidates are recruited by the Public Service Commission (PSC) of the State.-The Governor appoints the Chairman and the members of the State Public Service Commission.-State PSC’s is constituted on the basis of constitutional provisions. -So State PSC’s are called constitutional institutionsAdministrative Reforms-A number of steps are taken by the government for increasing the efficiency of the services and to provide service to people in a time bound manner.-They are known as administrative reforms.-The intention is to make administration people friendly and efficient.-For this government constitutes administrative reform commissions at national and state levels.Examples for Administrative Reforms- E-Governance.- Right to Information.- Right to Service.- Lokpal and Lokayuktha.- Central Vigilance Commission.- OmbudsmanE-governance-E-governance is the use of electronic technology in administration. Examples: – The single window system for admission to Higher Secondary courses.- Online applications for various scholarships, etc.Benefits of E-governance.- Can receive service with the help of information technology.- Need not to wait in government offices for services.- Government services offered speedily and with less expense.- Efficiency of the offices and quality of the service get enhanced.Right to Information- We can collect information from any government office about its working.- People got this opportunity under the Right to Information Act 2005.- The efforts of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Samghathan of Rajasthan has led to the legislation

Right to Information Act.- This ensures the right of all citizens of India to receive information.

Main objectives of Right to Information-

The main objectives of this Act are to prevent corruption,

create responsibility and make the functioning of the government transparent.-The citizens will get copies of public documents if they apply for them.

Right to Service-Right to Service Act is a law which ensures services to the people.-This law determines the time limit for every service given by a government office.-If the deserved service is not given within this time limit, the responsible employee should pay a fine.-As per the Right to Service Act, an officer is appointed in every government office to give guidance and proper help to the applicants.Central Vigilance Commission-The Central Vigilance Commission is the institution constituted at the national level to prevent corruption.-It came into effect in 1964.-It is formed to prevent corruption in the central government offices.-The Central Vigilance Commissioner is the head of the Central Vigilance Commission.-In every department there will be a Chief Vigilance Officer.-The duty of the commission is to enquire into vigilance cases and take necessary actions.State vigilance commissions-The State Vigilance Commission inquires into corruption in the state government offices.-Vigilance courts are also constituted to track vigilance cases.Lokpal and LokayukthaLokpal and Lokayukta are institutions constituted to prevent corruption at administrative, bureaucratic and political levels.-The institution constituted at the national level to prevent corruption is Lokpal.-Lokpal has the power to register cases on issues of corruption against employees and public workers and can suggest necessary actions.Lokayukta is the institution constituted at the state level to hear the corruption cases-Both of them follow judicial procedures.Ombudsman-The Ombudsman is the mechanism for complaints of corruption, nepotism or financial misconduct by Elected representatives and bureaucrats who are part of public administration.-A retired Judge of the High Court is appointed as the Ombudsman.-People can directly approach the Ombudsman with complaints.-On receiving complaints, the Ombudsman has the power to summon anyone and can orderenquary and recommend actions-Ombudsman has its beginning in banking sector to hear the complaints of clients and rectify them.All


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